Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Stem of Periploca Aphylla Plant

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sistan & Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sistan & Baluchestan, Zahedan


This present work reports an ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using aqueous stem extract of Periploca aphylla as a reducing and stabilizing agent, has been discussed. This approach is simple, cost-effective and stable for a long time, reproducible at room temperature and in an eco-friendly manner to obtain a self-assembly of Au NPs. Two parameters were optimised for the fabrication of gold nanoparticles including the pH and contact time. The resulting nanoparticles are characterized using UV–vis, TEM, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. UV–visible spectra of the aqueous medium containing gold nanoparticles showed a surface plasmon resonance peak at 535 nm. Uniform spherical shapes were observed for biosynthesized Au NPs within range of 25–30 nm by transmission electron microscopy. XRD results confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. FT-IR analysis was performed to analyze the biomolecules responsible for the reduction of Au NPs.


1. Cushing B. L,. Kolesnichenko V. L, O’Connor C. J. Recent advances in the liquid-phase syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles. Chem. Rev. 2004; 104(9): 3893-3946
2. Lekshmi NC, Sumi SB, Viveka S, Jeeva S, Brindha JR. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles from Allium sp. Microbiol. Biotech. Res. 2012; 2(1): 115-119.
3. Rao C. N. R, Kulkarni G. U, Thomas P. J, Edwards P. P. Metal nanoparticles and their assemblies. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2000; 29: 27-35.
4. Brocchi E.A, Motta M.S, Solorzano I.G, Jena P.K, Moura F.J. Alternative chemical-based synthesis routes and characterizationof nano-scale particles. Mater Sci. Eng. B. 2004; 112(2-3): 200–205.
5. Janbey A, Pati R.K, Tahir S, Pramanik P. A new chemical route for the synthesis of nano-crystalline α-Al2O3 powder. Europ. Ceram. Soc. 2001; 21: 2285–2289.
6. Hunt E.M, Plantier K.B, Pantoya M.L. Nano-scale reactants in the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nickel aluminide. Acta Mater. 2004; 52(11): 3183–3191.
7. Yu D.G. Formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles stabilized by Na+–poly(γ-glutamic acid)–silver nitrate complex via chemical reduction process. Colloids Surf. B. 2007; 59(2): 171–178.
8. Tan Y, Wang Y, Jiang L, Zhu D. Thiosalicylic acid-functionalized silver nanoparticles synthesized in one-phase system. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2002; 249: 336–345. 9. Petit C, Lixon P, Pileni M.P. In situ synthesis of silver nanocluster in AOT reverse micelles. J. Phys. Chem. 1993; 97(49) 12974–12983.
10. Vorobyova S.A, Lesnikovich A.I, Sobal N.S. Preparation of silver nanoparticles by interphase reduction. Colloids Surf. A. 1999; 152: 375–379.
11. Liu Y.C, Lin L.H. New pathway for the synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles from bulk silver substrates in aqueous solutions by sonoelectrochemical methods. Electrochem. Commun. 2004; 6: 1163–1168.
12. Sandmann G, Dietz H, Plieth W. Preparation of silver nanoparticles on ITO surfaces by a double-pulse method. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2000; 491:78–86.
13. Mallick K, Witcomb M.J, Scurrell M.S. Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles in a polymer solvent: formation of a nanochain through nanoscale soldering. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2005; 9: 221–224.
14. Keki S, Torok J, Deak G. Silver Nanoparticles by PAMAM-Assisted Photochemical Reduction of Ag(+). J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2000; 229 : 550–553.
15. Bae C.H, Nam S.H, Park S.M. Formation of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of a silver target in NaCl solution. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2002; 197-198: 628–634.
16. Smetana A.B, Klabunde K.J, Sorensen C.M. Synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles by digestive ripening, stabilization with various agents, and their 3-D and 2-D superlattice formation. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2005; 284 (2) 521–526.
17. Sanvicens N, Marco M.P. Multifunctional nanoparticles--properties and prospects for their use in human medicine. Trends Biotechnol. 2008; 26(8): 425–33.
18. Johnson B.F.G. From clusters to nanoparticles and catalysis. Coord. Chem. Rev. 1999; 190-192: 1269–1285.
19. Peng H, Soeller C, Cannell M.B, Bowmaker G.A, Cooney R.P, Sejdic J.T. Electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization amplified by nanoparticles. Biosensors Bioelectron. Biosens. Bioelectr. 2006; 21(9): 1727–1736.
20. Bhumkar D.R, Joshi H.M, Sastry M, Pokharkar V.B. Chitosan reduced gold nanoparticles as novel carriers for transmucosal delivery of insuli. Pharm. Res. 2007; 24( 8): 1415−1426.
21. Panda T, Deepa K. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Nano sci. Nano technol. 2011; 11: 10279–10294.
22. Jain N, Bhargava A, Majumdar S, Panwar J. Extracellular biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism perspective. Nanoscale. 2011; 3(2): 635−641.
23. Nestor A.R.V, Mendieta V.S, Lopez M.A.C, Espinosa R.M.G, Alatorre J.A.A. Solventless synthesis and optical properties of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Camellia sinensis. Mater. Lett. 2008; 62: 3103–3105. 24. Shankar S.S, Rai A, Ankamwar B, Singh A, Ahmad A, Sastry M. Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms. Nat. Mater. 2004; 3: 482–488.
25. khadivi Derakhshan F, Dehnad A.R, Salouti M., Babaei H, Parsa L. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by metal resistance bacteria: Streptomyces griseus Synth. React. Inorg., Met.-Org., Nano-Met. Chem. 2012; 42(6) 868-871.
26. Parashar V, Parashar R, Sharma B, Pandey A.C. Parthenium leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: A novel approach towards weed utilization. Nanomater. Biostruct. 2009; 4(1): 45–50.
27. Philip D.. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A. 2009; 73: 374–381.
28. Smitha S.L, Philip D, Gopchandran K.G. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth. Spectrochim. Acta, Part A. 2009; 74: 735–739.
29. Song J.Y, Jang H.K, Kim B.S. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Magnolia kobus and Diopyros kaki leaf extracts. Process. Biochem. 2009; 44(10): 1133–1138.
30. Geethalakshmi R, Sarada D.V.L, Synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Trianthema decandra extract and evaluation of their anti microbial activities. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res. Technol. 2010; 2(5): 970-975.
31. Saxena A, Tripathi R.M, Singh R.P. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using onion (Allium cepa) extract and their antibacterial activity Dig. J. Nanomater. Biostruct. 2010; 5(2) : 427-432
32. Vigneshwaran N, Nachane R.P, Balasubramanya R.H, Varadarajan P.V. A novel one-pot green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using soluble starch. Carbohydr. Res. 2006; 341(12) : 2012–2018.
33. Alzahrani E, Welham K. Optimization Preparation of the Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Watermelon and Study of Its Antibacterial Activity. Int. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 2014; 3: 392-400.
34. Noguez C. Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment. Phys. Chem. 2007; 111: 3806-3819.
35. Amin M, Anwar F, Janjua M.R.S.A, Iqbal M.A, Rashid U. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles through Reduction with Solanum xanthocarpum L. Berry Extract: Characterization, Antimicrobial and Urease Inhibitory Activities against Helicobacter pylori. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012; 13: 9923–9941.
36. Shankar S.S, Ahmad A, Pasricha R, Sastry M. Bioreduction of chloroaurate ions by geranium leaves and its endophytic fungus yields gold nanoparticles of different shapes Mater Chem. 2003; 13: 1822-1826.
37. Pondey S, Oza G, Mewada A, Sharon M. Green Synthesis of Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticles using Momordica charantia as Nano fabricator. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2012;4(2): 1135-1141.
38. Raghunandan D, Basavaraja S, Mahesh B, Balaji S, Manjunath S. Y, Venkataraman A. Biosynthesis of stable polyshaped gold nanoparticles from microwave-exposed aqueous extracellular anti-malignant guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract Nanobiotechnol.. 2009; 5: 34-41.