The Impact of ND: YAG laser and PLGA/ Xylitol Nanoparticles on Dental Enamel (in vitro study )

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Preventive dentistry department, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad/ Baghdad, Iraq

2 , Department of basic science, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad/ Baghdad, Iraq.

3 Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Mustansiriyah University/ Baghdad, Iraq


Background: Dental caries is a prevalent chronic infectious illness caused by tooth-adherent cariogenic bacteria. Demineralization by acid invasion is the fundamental principle of a dental caries lesion. One of the possibly effective preventative methods against dental caries is laser and nanotechnology. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of the Nd:YAG laser and PLGA/Xylitol nanoparticles on the microhardness of dental enamel and the morphological change in the dental enamel ultrastructure. Methodology: In this study, 55 maxillary first premolars were divided into five groups: four study groups and one control group, each with 11 teeth; 10 teeth were examined for microhardness, while one tooth was subjected to SEM. A circular window was positioned on the buccal surface of each tooth. Following a PH cycling technique to activate caries lesions on the tooth enamel, lasing was performed using predetermined parameters. The PLGA/Xylitol nanoparticle concentration was adjusted to 5%. The microhardness and morphological change were measured quantitatively using micro Vickers and SEM, respectively, at 3 stages: sound, demineralization, and treatment. Result: Enamel microhardness values decreased highly significantly after the demineralization stage compared to the sound stage for all groups. After application of various agents, the microhardness values of all treated groups, excluding the control, increased highly significantly in comparison to the demineralization stage. The nanoparticles+laser treated group exhibited a sharp increase in microhardness values. An SEM showed an ultrastructural change that began with the loss of typical enamel structure after demineralization.