Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of High-Purity Nb Doped BaTiO3 Nanocrystals

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran



The synthesis of Nb doped BaTiO3 has been investigated under Microwave-Hydrothermal (MH) conditions in the temperature of 150°C for only 2 h using C16H36O4Ti, BaH2O2.8H2O and NbCl5 as Ba, Ti and  Nb sources, respectively.  Typical experiments performed on MH processing have not yet reported for Nb doped BaTiO3.  In the MH process, the formation of high purity nano tetragonal Nb-BaTiO3 was strongly enhanced. New hydrothermal method was used instead of the previous solid state reaction for the BaTiO3±Nb2O3 system. The new method uses high pressure to create nano dimension particles in a lower time and temperature. In case of the phase evolution studies, the XRD pattern measurements and Raman spectroscopy were performed. TEM and FE-SEM images were taken for the detailed analysis of the particle size, surface and morphology.  Synthesis of Nb doped BaTiO3 with the Microwave-hydrothermal provides an advantage of fast crystallization and reduced crystal size when compared to existing methods.