U. S. Choi, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, ASME Fluids Eng. Div. 231 (1995) 99-105.
 J.R. Koseff, A.K. Prasad, The lid-driven cavity flow: a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative observations, J. Fluids Eng. Transactions of the ASME106 (1984) 390-398.
 M. Morzinski, C.O. Popiel, Laminar heat transfer in a two-dimensional cavity covered by a moving wall, Num. Heat Trans. 12 (1988) 265-273.
 W. J. Luo, R. J. Yang, Multiple fluid flow and heat transfer solutions in a two-sided lid-driven cavity, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 50 (2007) 2394-2405.
 A. M. Al-Amiri, K. M. Khanafer, I. Pop, Numerical simulation of combined thermal and mass transport in a square lid-driven cavity, Int. J. Therm. Sci. 46 (2007) 662-671.
 B. Ghasemi, S.M. Aminossadati, Mixed convection in a lid-driven triangular enclosure filled with nanofluids, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Trans. 37 (2010) 1142-1148.
 F. Talebi, A. H. Mahmoudi, M. Shahi, Numerical study of mixed convection flows in a square lid-driven cavity utilizing nanofluid, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Trans. 37 (2010) 79-90.
 M.A. Mansour, R.A. Mohamed, M.M. Abd-Elaziz, S. E. Ahmed, Numerical simulation of mixed convection flows in a square lid-driven cavity partially heated from below using nanofluid, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Trans. 37 (2010) 1504-1512.
 E. Abu-Nada, A. J. Chamkha, Mixed convection flow in a lid-driven inclined square enclosure filled with a nanofluid, Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids. 29 (2010) 472-482.
 H.C. Brinkman, The viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solutions, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 571-581.
 Y. Xuan, Q. Li, Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nanofluids, ASME J. Heat Trans. 125 (2003) 151-155.
 J.C. Maxwell-Garnett, Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 203 (1904) 385-342
 K. Khanafer, K. Vafai, M. Lightstone, Buoyancy-driven heat transfer enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 46 (2003) 3639-3653.
 G. Barakos, E. Mitsoulis, Natural convection flow in a square cavity revisited: laminar and turbulent models with wall functions, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids. 18 (1994) 695-719.
 N.C. Markatos, K.A. Pericleous, Laminar and turbulent natural convection in an enclosed cavity, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 27 (1984) 772-775.
 G. De Vahl Davis, Natural convection of air in a square cavity, a benchmark numerical solution, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids. 3 (1983) 249-264.
 T. Fusegi, J.M. Hyun, K. Kuwahara, B. Farouk, A numerical study of three dimensional natural convection in a differentially heated cubical enclosure, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 34 (1991) 1543-1557.