Facile Fabrication of Co3O4 Nanostructures as an Effective Photocatalyst for Degradation and Removal of Organic Contaminants

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of chemistry, Faculty of sciences, Gorgan branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran


Co3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple Co-precipitation reaction between precursors of cobalt and NH3. The effect of different parameters such as concentration of NH3 and precursors of cobalt on the size and photocatalytic activity of the products was investigated. The achieved nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic behavior of Co3O4 nanoparticles was evaluated using the degradation of various organic pollutants (rothamine B and methyl orange) under visible irradiation. Also effect of pH on the photocatalytic performance of Co3O4 nanostructures was investigated. Best concentration of NH3 for degradation of methyl orange and rhodamine B is 3 mol, and most appropriate precursor of cobalt for the demolition of dyes is Co(Hsal)2. Photo-degradation of Rhodamine B and methyl orange (89%) was performed using Co3O4 nanoparticle (band gap 1.7 eV) synthesized by Co(Hsal)2 as precursor of cobalt under visible light irradiation for 4h.


1. Murawski L. Chung C. H, Mackenzie J. D, Electrical properties of semiconducting oxide glasses, J Non-Cryst Solids., 1979; 32; 91.
2. Ciocilteu S. M, Salou M, Kiyozumi Y. H, Niwa S, Mizukamia F, Haneda M, Uniform distribution of copper and cobalt during the synthesis of SiMFI-5 from kanemite through solidstate transformation, J. Mater. Chem., 2003; 13: 602.
3. Mhamdi M, Khaddar-Zine S, Ghorbel A, Influence of the Co/Al ratio and the temperature of thermal treatment on cobalt speciation and catalytic properties of Co-ZSM-5 prepared by solid-state ion exchange, Appl Catal A-Gen, 2008; 337: 39.
4. Grisel R. J. H, Nieuwenhuys B. E, Selective Oxidation of CO, over Supported Au Catalysts, J. Catal., 2001; 199: 48.
5. Ando M, Kobayashi T, Iijima S, Haruta M, Optical recognition of CO and H2 by use of gassensitive Au–Co3O4 composite films, J.Mater. Chem., 1997; 7: 1779.
6. Roth W. L, The magnetic structure of Co3O4, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1964; 25: 1.
7. Seike T, Nagai J, Electrochromism of 3d transition metal oxides, Sol. Energy Mater. 1991; 22: 107.
8. Kadam L. D, Patil P. S, Thickness-dependent properties of sprayed cobalt oxide thin films, Mater. Chem. Phys. 2001; 68: 225.
9. Wang S, Zhang B, Zhao C, Li S, Zhang M, Yan L, Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere, Appl Surf Sci. 2011; 257: 3358.
10. Kim H. K, Seong T. Y, Lim J. H, Cho W. L, Yoon Y. S, Electrochemical and structural properties of radio frequency sputtered cobalt oxide electrodes for thin-film supercapacitors, J. Power Sources, 2001; 102: 167.
11. Barreca D, Massignan C, Daolio S, Fabrizio M, Piccirillo C, Armelao L, Tondello E, Composition and Microstructure of Cobalt Oxide Thin Films Obtained from a Novel Cobalt(II) Precursor by Chemical Vapor Deposition, Chem. Mater. 2001; 13: 588.
12. Hideywki K, Motomasa I, Effects of SiO2 and Cr2O3 on the formation process of ZnO varistors, J. Mater. Sci. 1988; 23: 4379.
13. Shinde V. R, Mahadik S. B, Gujar T. P, Lokhande C. D, Supercapacitive cobalt oxide (Co3O4) thin films by spray pyrolysis, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252 (2006) 7487.
14. Dasilva L. M, Boodts J. F. C, Faria L. A. D, Oxygen evolution at RuO2(x) + Co3O4 (1-x) electrodes from acid solution, Electrochim Acta, 2001; 46: 1369.
15. Jiang S. P, Tseung A. C. C, Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic in cobalt oxide / graphite air electrodes, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1990; 137: 764.
16. Mousavand T, Takami S, Umetsu M, Ohara S, Adschiri T, Supercritical hydrothermal synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. J. Mater. Sci. 2006; 41: 1445.
17. Vidal-Vidal J, Rivas J, LópezQuintel M. A, Synthesis of monodisperse maghemite nanoparticles by the microemulsion method, Colloids Surf. A, 2006; 288: 44.
18. Takeshi T, Hamagamia T, Kawamurab T, Yamaki J, Tsuji M, Laser ablation of cobalt and cobalt oxides in liquids: influence of solvent on composition of prepared nanoparticles. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2005; 243: 214.
19. Yuan Z, Huang F, Feng C, Sun J, Zhou Y, Synthesis and electrochemical performance of nanosized Co3O4, Mater. Chem. Phys. 2004; 79: 1.
20. Yang H, Hu Y, Zhang X, Qiu G, Mechanochemical synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. Mater. Lett. 2004; 58: 387.
21. Llusar M, Royo V, Badenes J. A, Tena G, Monros G, Nanocomposite Fe2O3–SiO2 inclusion pigments from post-functionalized mesoporous silicas, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2009; 29: 3319.
22. Reddy M. V, Yu T, Sow C. H, Shen Z. X, Lim C. T, Rao C. V. S, Chowdari B. V. R, α-Fe2O3 Nanoflakes as an Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2007; 17: 2792.
23. Wu P. C, Wang W. S, Huang Y. T, Shen H. S, Lo Y. W, Tsai D. B, Shieh D. B, Yeh C. S, Porous Iron Oxide Based Nanorods Developed as Delivery Nanocapsules, Chem. Eur. J. 2007; 13: 3878.
24. Abbasi A, Ghanbari D, Hamadanian M, Salavati-Niasari M, Photo-degradation of methylene blue: Photocatalyst and magnetic investigation of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanoparticles and nanocomposites, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron. 2016; 27: 4800.
25. Abbasi A, Khojasteh H, Hamadanian M, Salavati-Niasari M, Synthesis of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and investigation of the temperature, surfactant, capping agent and time effects on the size and magnetic properties, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron. 2016; 27: 4972-4980.
26. Abbasi A, Hamadanian M, Salavati-Niasari M, Mortazavi-Drazkollah S, Facile size-controlled preparation of highly photocatalytically active ZnCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4/Ag nanostructures for removal of organic contaminants, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2017; 500: 276-284.
27. Mortazavi-Derazkola S, Salavati-Niasari M, Amiri O, Abbasi A, Fabrication and characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ho nanostructures as a novel and highly efficient photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollution, Journal of Energy Chemistry, 2017; 26: 17-23.
28. Khojasteh H, Salavati-Niasari M, Abbasi A, Azizi F, Enhessari M, Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 nanocomposites, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron. 2016; 27: 1261-1269.